ERICarts European Institute for Comparative Cultural Research


Culture Biz: Locating Women as Film and Book Publishing Professionals in Europe

ERICarts Report in partnership with FinnEkvit (Helsinki), MEDIACULT (Vienna), Observatorio das Actividades Culturais (Lisbon) and Zentrum für Kulturforschung (Bonn). Bonn: ARCult Media 2005, ISBN 3-930395-70-3, 395 pages, € 25.00. Orders: info@arcultmedia.de 

Culture-Biz is the third publication in a series investigating the status of women working in the cultural labour market in Europe (the 2nd one, "Culture-Gates", is out of print, but main results can be accessed here). It has been supported under the European Commission's Community Framework Strategy on Gender Equality 2001-2005. Through its empirical analyses and comparative assessments, Culture-Biz brings about transparency on the position of women working in two main fields of the creative industries: book publishing and film production. Comparative information and data of the study are directed to policy makers, experts and stakeholders on gender equality in the European labour market.  

The Culture Biz study began in January 2004 and was finalised in Spring 2005.

Research teams were assembled in Austria, Finland, Germany and Portugal  to locate women as creative and managerial decision-makers working in specific branches of the audiovisual industries: namely fiction book publishing and film production.  The results of these research studies are examined in comparison. An overview of the methodology and main results, prepared by Danielle Cliche and Andreas Joh. Wiesand, can be downloaded here.

DATA COLLECTION DESIGN

Part 1:  Book Publishing

1.    Overview

1.1     Assessment of existing national empirical studies on the book publishing sector including estimates on the size of the labour market, changing structures of the market, changing professions and training processes, impact of new technologies.

1.2     General overview, contextual information on main developments/trends since the beginning of the 90s (including bookshops).

1.3     Ownership structure of large, medium, small sized book publishing companies describing internal dynamics and structures.

1.4     Presentation of information on women working in smaller/medium sized companies based on secondary sources (existing studies, press articles) and on the results from the interviews.

1.5     Career paths of women working in the book publishing companies and presence of glass ceilings (to be derived from biographies and interviews).

2.    Gendered Labour Market Data

2.1     Employment figures (1995, 2000, 2003)

Latest gendered data available from Eurostat labour market survey (NACE Codes 3 digits) and additional national data sources e.g. census data :

  • total employed; and
  • number of self-employed with employees.

2.2     Unemployment figures (1995, 2000, 2003)

Latest data available from Eurostat labour market survey (NACE codes 3 digits). Additional national data sources e.g. census data to be included in national reports.

2.3     Members of professional associations/unions (2004)

Data not possible to collect as companies rather than individuals are members of professional associations. Gendered information on the boards of these associations/unions to be collected by national partners if available. National teams to rely more on information gathered via interviews.

3.    Representation of Women in Decision Making Positions

3.1     Large Publishing Companies (2004)

Information on the 5 largest and most important book publishing companies in your country for fiction or those which include fiction as a main component of their activities in their programmes including turnover, number of titles published and number of employees in each company.  Data on the share of women occupying the following positions:

  • Owners
  • CEO’s
  • Executive/Management Positions 
  • Directors of Publishing Programme (overall)
  • Director of Production (technical)
  • Director of Distribution
  • Director of Marketing
  • Editor-in-Chief
  • Other relevant gate-keeping positions
  • Relevant lower level positions which would assist in identifying feminisation/glass ceilings (could be identified via interviews

3.2     SME’s Publishing Companies (2004)

Sample of small and medium sized publishing companies examining decision-making structures and the representation of women therein. Information / data to be collected on each company by national partners: turnover, number of titles published, number of employees (+share of women), number of leading positions (+share of women)

4.    Distribution/Promotion

4.1     Assessment of national policies, practices, and networks related to the financing and distribution of books

4.2     Influence of specialised distribution firms on production and circulation and promotion of books

4.3     Assessment of the share of women in decision-making positions among the main

  • Book Store Chains (2004), e.g. owners, executive directors, other leading positions
  • Book Fairs (2004) e.g. decision-making positions in the main national book fairs

4.4     Share of women among the winners/juries of main book awards, grants or other main sources of public funding available for female authors.

5.    Training (1992-1997-2002)

5.1     Identify qualifications required by publishing houses. Where to obtain these qualifications?

5.2     Data to be collected on the share of female students/professors of main courses/degrees at vocational training institutes or in universities relevant to a career in book publishing as identified above.  For example:  literature studies and/or b) language studies c) other business courses as relevant. Target years to be studied.

5.3     Information on in-house training programmes or those offered by professional associations of publishers.

5.4     Case studies in Leipzig, Mainz and Stuttgart and others from different countries.

6.    Other Important Actors in Gate-keeping and Mediating Processes (2004)

Share of women as:

6.1     Book critics in newspapers, magazines, radio/TV (influential persons in the media giving book reviews).

6.2     Book sales agents /authors agents.

7.    Women's initiatives (examples of good practice, model projects)

7.1     Networks, mentoring programmes, public programmes to support women in the book publishing sector.

7.2     Women’s book shops, publishers.

7.3     Women’s book fairs.

 

Part II:  Film Production

1.    Overview

1.1     Assessment of existing empirical studies on the national film sector including estimates on the size of the labour market, changing structure of the market, changing professions and training processes, impact of new technologies

1.2     General overview, contextual information on main developments/trends in your country since the beginning of the 90s

1.3     Ownership of large, medium, small sized film production companies, describing internal dynamics and structures

1.4     Presentation of information on women working in smaller/medium sized companies based on secondary sources (existing studies, press articles) and on the results from the interviews

1.5     Career paths of women working in the film production companies and presence of glass ceilings (to be derived from the interviews)

1.6     National funding sources such as grants, scholarships etc

2.    Gendered Labour Market Data

2.1     Employment figures (1995, 2000, 2003)

Latest gendered data available from Eurostat labour market survey (NACE Codes 3 digits) and additional national data sources e.g. census data :

  • total employed
  • number of self-employed with employees

2.2     Unemployment figures (1995, 2000, 2003)

Latest data available from Eurostat labour market survey (NACE codes 3 digits). Additional national data sources e.g. census data to be included in national reports. 

2.3     Members of professional associations/unions (2004)

3.         Representation of Women in Key Decision Making Positions

3.1     Film Production Companies (2004)

Share of women in decision-making positions in the main nationally based film production companies including: turnover, number of films produced, number of employees (+share of women), number of leading positions (+share of women), largest feature film production company to be examined as a case study

3.2     Publicly Funded Film Productions (1991-1993 / 2001-2003)

Professionals involved in publicly funded feature film productions, long documentary films and short films intended for screening in the cinema including:  Directors, Producers, Editors, Directors of Photography (DoP), Screenwriters

4.    Distribution/Promotion (1991-1993 / 2001-2003)

4.1     Assessment of national policies, practices, and networks related to the financing and distribution of films (also via television).

4.2     Growth and influence of "new markets" (e.g. Internet) on indigenous film distribution.

4.3     Assessment of the share of women in decision-making positions among the main nationally based film festivals (feature, documentary, short).

4.4     Share of women among the winners/juries of main film awards, grants or other main sources of public funding available for female film directors.

4.5     Assessment of the representation of female directors in rejected applications to national film funding bodies.

4.6     Share of indigenous women directors on the top domestic film lists (based on box office earnings).

5.    Training/Education (1992-1997-2002)

5.1     Gender breakdown of graduates of film schools.

5.2     Gender breakdown of professors/teaching staff.

5.3     Description of production companies/new markets emerging around schools.

5.4     Training abroad as a prerequisite for a future successful career.

6.    Other Important Actors in Gate-keeping and Mediating Processes (2004)

The share of women among:

  • Film critics in newspapers/journals, magazines, radio/TV
  • Agents/pitchers/scouts.
  • Networks
  • Promoters

7.    Women's initiatives (examples of good practice, model projects)

7.1     Networks, mentoring programmes, public programmes to support women in film production.

7.2     Women’s film production companies.

7.3     Women’s film festivals.

 




Related Projects

2003 Culture Gates

2000 Pyramid or Pillars

1998 Women in Cultural Policies


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